Supporting the Paris Agreement

C2ES has been deeply involved in the United Nations climate talks for many years, producing expert analysis on issues facing negotiators, and facilitating informal dialogue among key countries.

C2ES @ COP28

Find out how C2ES is engaging at the COP this year, including events and important issues to watch at the meeting.

Featured Publications

A Solutions-oriented Approach to the Global Stocktake

This paper outlines clear, actionable signals the GST outcome could offer to accelerate climate action and implementation in three areas: mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation (finance).

Re-invigorating the UN Climate Regime in the Wider Landscape of Climate Action

This report suggests a number of ways—through radical evolution rather than revolution—that both the UN climate regime and the way that it catalyses climate action in the wider landscape could be made more effective. 

Elements for the Considerations of Outputs Component of the GST

The first Global Stocktake will conclude at COP28. In this paper, we show how its outcomes, which will inform the next set of nationally determined contributions, can offer clear and actionable political signals and commitments to accelerate climate ambition and implementation.

Options for a Politically-Salient Headline for the Global Goal on Adaptation

At COP28, Parties will consider how to formulate a Global Goal on Adaptation. In this brief, we explore 7 options for a headline goal or guiding star for the GGA and what each headline could mean.

Our Work

International Climate Diplomacy and Engagement

C2ES regularly convenes lead negotiators to discuss key issues in the international climate negotiations. In the two years leading up to COP21 in Paris, C2ES organized the Toward 2015 dialogue to discuss options for a new climate agreement.

International Climate Diplomacy and Engagement

The Global Stocktake

C2ES is working on a project to help shape the global stocktake (GST) process by ensuring a strong focus on opportunities to scale up climate ambition. The project aims for an ambitious and environmentally effective outcome from the GST at COP28 that leverages COP28 as a forcing event to drive needed real-world action; assists countries to implement existing climate commitments; and facilitates the raising the ambition of their next round of commitments.

The Global Stocktake

Loss and Damage

Loss and damage is increasingly a reality around the world and a greater focus of attention in international climate diplomacy. C2ES is making this key issue a central part of our mission, working toward achieving an international consensus on this contentious issue—including through expert analysis, policy briefs, blogs, and convenings of key stakeholders—in a way that is effective to help the most climate vulnerable people around the world.


Loss and Damage

International Carbon Markets

C2ES has supported efforts to ensure robust rules for implementing Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which allows countries voluntarily cooperate with each other to achieve emission reduction targets set out in their NDCs. C2ES is also a member of the Executive Secretariat of the Integrity Council for the Voluntary Carbon Market, which is establishing a threshold quality standard for carbon credits to ensure a high-integrity voluntary carbon market and drive climate finance at scale into emissions reduction and sustainable growth.

International Climate Finance

Reducing emissions while adapting to a changing climate will require trillions of dollars in climate finance and investment. This is particularly critical for developing countries and those most vulnerable climate change. C2ES aims to assess the climate finance landscape, inform negotiations and policy, and provide options for outcomes in the context of the UNFCCC.

International Climate Finance